The volleyball libero is a back row specialist specializing in the volleyball defensive skills of passing, serving and playing defense.
Libero, which means "free" in Italian, which is where the volleyball libero position was invented, can freely enter in and out of the court without having to be substituted in.
Because she can go in and out of the game often she wears a different colored jersey so the referee can see the difference between the libero and the other players.
Up to two liberos can be on the team. When a team has two liberos only one of them can serve.
Find answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about the libero in volleyball in the information below.
The volleyball libero position should be included on the score sheet of players the coach presents to the official scorekeepers at the referee's table before each game starts.
That's if the coach has chosen a player to be a libero on the team, of course.
Although two liberos are allowed to be members on a team, only one at a time can be on the court during a competition.
Whichever libero the coach chooses to start the game is called the starting libero.
The libero that is on the court playing, is called the acting libero.
Like the defensive specialist, the player that takes on the role of the volleyball libero position can only play in the back row.
According to the volleyball subbing rules, the libero is obligated to come out of the game before rotating to the front row, which means they definitely cannot block or attempt to block the ball.
The only way this player can hit the ball is if the ball is below the height of the top of the net.
The libero cannot set a ball to a front row hitter if her feet are inside the ten foot line.
But she can set a front row player from the back row which means as long as her feet are behind the ten foot line, otherwise known as the back court, then the hitter that she is setting, can hit the ball into the opponent's court.
In all levels of competition, whether its high school, college or international the libero is required to wear a volleyball jersey that's a contrasting color than the jerseys worn by the other members of the team.
To be more specific, the libero's jersey has to be the color of the predominant contrasting color worn by the other players on their team.
So if the team jersey colors are red and white and the team captain decides that the team should wear their red jerseys for an away game, then the libero should wear her white libero jersey.
And if they play a home game then the reverse would happen, the team would wear their white jerseys and the libero would wear her red jersey.
There are certain team uniform color combinations which aren't distinctive enough to comply with the USAV volleyball uniform rules like teams that have uniforms with color combinations with purple/black, dark green/black, navy/maroon and white/yellow.
The libero jersey can have a different design, it must be in a contrasting color worn by the other members of the team, and most importantly it must have a number on it like all the other players' jerseys.
When substitutions are made, the libero must go in and out of the game for the same person.
According to volleyball rules and regulations as long as they do that, they have an unlimited number of substitutions.
When a libero goes in the game for someone else their substitution is not counted as one of their team's regular substitutions.
When the player in the volleyball libero position enters the game they must do it before the referee blows the whistle to start the next play.
In other words, as long as the ball is not in play a libero substitution can be made.
Even though a libero can go in and out of the game for the same player an unlimited amount of times, they can't do it back to back to back, they must wait so that a rally is played before replacing a player.
If the player in the libero position was registered on the 12-player roster at the beginning of the tournament gets hurt, then another player can take her place.
Once this replacement libero is named and placed on the roster, she can only play in the libero volleyball position for the rest of the tournament.
Now if the previously injured player in the libero position can return to play in the tournament, then the player that was chosen to take her place can be registered again in the normal line-up for later matches playing in a different position other than the libero position once the initially registered libero is officially re-instituted.
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